PhD studies

The PhD programme in economic history offers stimulating studies with excellent career prospects both within and outside academia. The programme has a strong international orientation where both teaching and research are done in English. The PhD candidates participate in international networks and work towards international publication of their results.

Much of the research is conducted in close connection to the many research projects at the Department of Economic History or at the research centers connected to the department.

Programme structure

The programme corresponds to 240 credit points (four years of full-time study), and consists of one course component (75 credit points) and a doctoral dissertation (165 credit points). Normally the mandatory courses are taken during the first year.

Mandatory courses (52.5 credit points)

In consultation with the supervisors, the doctoral student is to identify a research problem and formulate a research issue that is to be examined in the doctoral thesis, and plan his or her research with regard to theory, data and methodology. Major emphasis is placed on the research design, i. e. how to address the research issue of the thesis by means of theoretical discussion, previous research and empirical material. The planning of the research is to be based on the current guidelines for doctoral theses at the Department of Economic History, and the final stage of the course is a written and oral presentation of the thesis plan.

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Course code: EHEH001

The course consists of reading and analysing a number of standard works in economic history, divided into three components: pre-industrial society, the process of industrialisation, and modern society. In addition to the required reading determined by the group of instructors, the doctoral student shall, in consultation with the course instructor, select works (monographs and/or collections of articles) to be addressed. The doctoral student is subsequently assigned the task to write an independent analytical essay for each component, based on the choice of texts and within a predetermined time frame. The components will be addressed in chronological order, and the final assessment for each component will be based on an oral exam on the written assignments.

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Course code: EHEH002

The course will demonstrate ability to critically apply philosophy of science approaches to their own and others’ research, and evaluate philosophical assumptions against alternatives. The course will give you knowledge about; the role of Philosophy of Science in relation to the sciences, Approaches in the Philosophy of Science, Scientific explanations, Progress in science, Theory and reality, Values and science.

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Course code: EHFE013

Basic normative ethics, the history of research ethics, the utility of research, the risks of research subjects and others concerned, protection of personal integrity and personal data, informed consent and research on subjects unable to give consent, relevant legislation, ethical vetting, good research practice, research misconduct, publication ethics, the researcher as an authority and ethical aspects of external engagement.

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Given by the faculty of Medicine

Course code: EHLG001

Active and regular attendance at the department’s seminars along with completed midway and final seminars.

Course code: EEH002F

(by choice but recommended courses to choose from could be Econometrics I, EEH006F or Econometrics II, EEH007F)

The course is divided up into two parts. The first part consists of basic theory and methods relating to multivariate linear regression, limited dependent variable regression and time series analysis. It also considers how to apply these methods through examples of how such methods are used in economic history. This part also introduces computer software (e.g. Stata) for quantitative analysis. In the second part of the course, students analyse a quantitative problem using actual data from economic history, and report results in individual papers.

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Course code: EEH006F

(by choice but recommended courses to choose from could be Econometrics I, EEH006F or Econometrics II, EEH007F)

The course consists of two parts. The first part consists of more advanced theory and methods relating to causal approaches surpassing the multivariate linear regression, limited dependent variable regression and time series analysis covered by Econometrics I. It also considers how to apply these methods through examples of how such methods are used in economic history. It discusses issues like selection bias, the bad control problem, and unobserved heterogeneity and the pitfalls associated with them as well as the possibilities to deal with these issues. This part advances the knowledge of empirical analysis making use of computer software (e.g. Stata). In the second part of the course, students independently analyse a more advanced quantitative problem using actual data from economic history, and report results in individual papers, showing awareness of the pros and cons of various causal approaches in econometrics.

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Course code: EEH007F

By choice but recommended course is “Sources and Source Criticism” given by Stockholm University

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Optional courses (22.5 credit points)

The selection of optional courses is regulated in the individual study plan and in accordance with the specialization of the candidate. The Department of Economic History offers numerous optional courses, but it is also possible to study elsewhere. Advanced level course credits are transferred to the PhD programme studies after individual assessment and consultation with the supervisor and the director of the PhD programme.

This course studies historical processes of growth, convergence and divergence in the global economy over the past two centuries. Two major approaches are applied. One takes its point of departure in theories of economic growth, basically on the role of capital and labour and the level of technology. The first generation of formal models, in the 1950s, predicted a convergence in income levels in the world. Recent generations of growth models allows however for income divergence among countries. The other approach takes its point of departure in theories about the international economy. Determinants as well as effects of international trade, migration, and movements of capital are studied. The impact of open economy forces on factor prices, that is, on the earnings of labour and the cost of capital, and its relation to growth is analyzed. With the application of these two approaches the course studies historical processes of growth, convergence and divergence in the global economy.

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Course code: EEH001F

Over the last decades, global growth dynamics have shifted towards the economies of the non-Western world. The world is no longer divided between the West and the Rest. Nor is the Rest to the same extent marked by stagnation. In the course, growth dynamics of the developing world during the last decades are explored in a comparative and historical perspective. The question of why some developing economies have been able to set in motion catching-up processes, while others remain stagnant, will be discussed aided by historical-theoretical perspectives with the main focus on countries in Pacific Asia, Africa South of the Sahara and Latin America. It will be theoretically and empirically assessed to what extent the growth of the so-called global South might be sustained. The course is divided into two parts. The first puts heavy emphasis on readings and lectures on analytical perspectives of development and catching up from the viewpoint of classical, although current, questions such as: the role of agricultural transformation, growth-inequality, market integration, possibilities for and experiences of industrial policy, technology transfer, social capabilities, market-state relationship, governance and domestic resource mobilization, poverty/human development. The second part of the course is more student-driven and is devoted to seminar assignments where highly topical themes are discussed on the basis of available empirical data. Examples of questions to be addressed might be: south-to-south investments flows, the impact of China, the extent to which growth is commodity-driven, issues of improving competitiveness and productivity, forces behind poverty reduction. The content of the course is delimited of both teaching and literature 

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Course code: EEH004F

Innovation and technical change is central to long term economic growth but it is treated very differently in economic theories. In a comparative manner this course presents technical change within major theoretical approaches: neoclassical growth models, endogenous growth models and evolutionary structural models. Particular attention is given to an economic historical model combined with a spatial theoretical framework of regional trajectories of growth. The model is based upon complementarities around innovations forming development blocks that are driving processes of structural change. Thus, the interplay between innovations, economic transformation and economic growth is studied with an emphasis on major carrier branches both historically and in contemporary times. Innovations are analysed in relation to variations over time in, e.g., relative prices, entrepreneurial activity, investments, labour demand and employment. It is shown how this, at an aggregate level, shows up in phases of spatial convergence and divergence, respectively.

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Course code: EEH005F

This course explores and explains the processes of rapid industrialisation and socio-economic modernisation in China and the Asia Pacific drawing on a historically -comparative institutional approach. Fundamental factors and forces behind the economic transformation are analysed against the background of leading theories of economic development and social change. The course is divided into two parts. The first part uses institutional theory to analyse the emergence of the so called East Asian model and its relevance for China. The institutional underpinnings of China's transformation to market economy are analysed in comparison with previous and contemporary development experiences in the Asia Pacific, from Japan to the ASEAN countries. Themes dealt with include agricultural modernisation and industrial policy and concepts such as developmental state, export-led growth, and growth with equity are applied and critically analysed. The second part deals with current trends and forces of globalisation in the Asia Pacific region and China's role as a leading regional economy. Trade policies, the impact of foreign investments and patterns of regional integration are explored and analysed.

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Course code: EEH008F

This course covers several areas of innovation economics, such as their characteristics, their driving forces of innovation and how innovation affects economic growth. It covers several sub-themes, such as:
Market structures and innovation - describes how competitive structures and imperfect competition may induce innovation in different industries.
Institutions and innovation - drawing on the systems of innovation literature, this theme addresses how the institutional framework affects innovation. Some of these aspects are related to national innovation systems (NIS), a concept for comparative analysis of innovative performance. Innovation processes and interdependencies within a more local or regional context are further analysed focusing on regional innovation systems (RIS). In addition to governing structures we address the role of different instruments such as standards, prizes and intellectual property rights such as patents for promoting innovation.
Diffusion - implications of why innovation spreads and how it spreads into the economic environment form different perspectives. Concepts discussed include adoption, imitation and spillovers. We consider the relatively new field of network economics as well.
The role of innovation in economic growth - examines the role of innovation in economic growth through processes related to radical innovations, general purpose technologies, competence blocks and development blocks.

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Course code: EEH009F

The first part of the course is an overview of the population debate over the past 50 years and its intellectual roots. This part includes theories explaining both the influence of population growth on economic, social, and environmental development and vice-versa. Examples are given, showing how the theories have been used to explain the historical development of population and living standards since the Middle Ages up to modern times. The concept of living standard is extended also to include how short-term economic changes influence population behaviour. Divergence in living standards between different socio-economic groups and institutional arrangements for transfers are studied. The second part introduces ways to model the complex interrelationship between population and living standards which are appropriate for empirical testing. The students then make use of their knowledge in theory and econometrics to analyze data for a specific country or region using information available at various data bases.

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Course code: EEH010F

This is a highly multidisciplinary course based on economics of innovation, sustainability studies, economic geography and development studies. This is an advanced course which builds on notions introduced in the “Economics of Innovation” and the “Energy transitions, Innovation and Trade” courses. The students will be introduced to the hard and soft notions of sustainability and discuss how economic growth relates to socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable development and the role of innovations in achieving sustainable development.

Topics covered throughout the course include inclusive, social and sustainable innovations and innovation systems. Theoretical insights will be complemented with practical cases of innovations for sustainable development in a variety of sectors around the world. Among the cases that will be covered during the course are innovations related to food production and consumption, protection of ecosystems and sustainable tourism, water and waste management, housing, energy or transport. Examples of the so-called Nordic model will be combined with cases of innovation from developed and developing countries.

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Course code: EEH011F

The course examines the impact of demographic change on the social and economic fabric of society, with a focus on issues of importance to today's policymakers. The impact of population aging will be examined in detail, as will the possible benefits / pitfalls of migration as a potential solution to population aging. The course will also examine the impacts of demographic change on individuals, through a discussion of the effects of cohort size on economic outcomes. The changing prospects for women in today's economy will also be analyzed within the framework of changing family structures. Governmental transfers dependent upon age structure, such as pension systems, will be studied, as will other aspects of intergenerational transfers.

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Course code: EEH013F

Human capital is, in short, the stock of skills that a country’s population or labor force possesses. It is an important determinant to economic growth and a strategic factor with respect to productivity. It also affects individuals’ lives in many ways through the promotion of personal well-being and economic equality. This course explores a range of topics relating to human capital formation by using historical, comparative, and current policy perspectives. Theory, methodological approaches, and empirical evidence on a range of topics are reviewed. Topics include the role of education in economic growth and distribution, the role of education and training for wage growth and career, and group differences in labor market outcomes, health and well-being. Lectures, seminars, and exams deal with human capital formation, the role of human capital during the first, second, and third industrial revolutions, and with the relation between human capital and income inequality across time and space.

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Course code: EEH014F

Historical evidence suggests that the quality and efficiency of a country's institutions, such as law enforcement, property rights, and civil rights, are significant determinants of its growth performance. Furthermore, the extent of inequality in a society is highly related to both the quality of institutions and economic growth. This course is focused on the relations between institutions, modern economic growth, and equality. Problems in the world of today are taken as a point of departure for an historical analysis that covers countries and regions in different parts of the world. The course builds on the four themes. The first theme deals with the emergence of institutions such as property rights and markets, and their role for economic growth. The second theme concerns the importance of the distribution of resources for institutional development and economic growth. The third theme is about the interrelationship between institutions, knowledge and equality of opportunity. The fourth theme deals with the emergence of the modern welfare state as an institutional response to inequality.

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Course code: EEH016F

Climate change has, more than anything else, imposed innovative challenges for present human energy systems. This course begins with an overview of global energy systems based on oil, carbon, nuclear and hydro power as well as supplementary systems. The overview includes resources/reserves of non-renewable energy sources, carbon capture and storage, climate and energy politics. Basic concepts, such as primary energy, conversion, emission factors, final use, energy carriers, energy, and power units are presented and problemised. Three areas are given particular emphasis: firstly, energy end use efficiency, its historical development and future prospects; secondly, renewable energy and the ongoing change at its technological frontier; thirdly, transports, their different systems, use of energy and impact on the environment as well as ongoing technological change. Both positive and normative aspects of the interplay between economic growth and energy are examined. Among the first aspects is the so called decoupling of energy and GDP, as well as CO2 and GDP. Relative and absolute decoupling is a central distinction of crucial importance for the sustainability of an energy system. Evidence and explanations for past decoupling are scrutinized, such as the third industrial revolution and the transition from commodity production to services. Normative aspects consider institutional and political factors which determine incentives for innovation.

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Course code: EEH018F

This course analyses the major debates in development economics from a long-term perspective. Economists and economic historians are increasingly aware that the process of economic growth is complex and often characterized by path dependency. There is also increasing attention for variation in institutional settings and their consequences, like differences in economic behaviour and economic outcomes. This course reflects these developments by focusing on economic evolution in the long run and on variations between societies. Questions central to the course are: ‘can we determine historical roots of why some countries are rich and others poor, and if so, how do we approach this?’; ‘what is the role of the different factors of production in long run economic development?’; ‘what role do critical historical junctures play in long run development?’, and why is income so much more unequally divided in some countries than in others?’. During the course, students will learn about the different methods used in modern research through an in depth study of the literature and hands on econometric exercises. Explorative methodologies versus hypothesis testing are discussed. Exercises are performed with the help of econometric software whereby students are trained in the use of statistical tools but also in understanding and interpreting quantitative results in an historical context.

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Course code: EEH031F

This course focuses on demographic processes and issues in different regions of the global south, both present and historical. With a point of departure in the Demographic transition, this course takes a multifaceted approach and covers various sub-fields within the field of demography, such as migration, mortality, health, fertility, and family issues. The overarching aim is to understand the causes and consequences of demographic change within the distinct subfields. With a focus onthe global south, students will examine similarities and differences between countries and regions. Due to the breadth of the topic the course covers a set of sub-topics, focusing on a specific region or demographic process (such as fertility decline in Asia or the reduction in infant mortality in sub-Saharan  Africa) the content of the course will moreover vary from year to year in order to allow for addressing the selected subtopic at a level appropriate for a course at this level of progression.

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Course code: EEH036F

This is a seminar-based course offered only to a limited number of second year students enrolled in the Master program in Innovation and Global Sustainable Development. In this course, students will learn about the principles of the circular economy and its practical application in the analysis of different industries and products; what the main challenges for a transition to a circular economy are, and what policymakers and regulators can do to ease the transition to a circular economy. The course is strongly based on readings and discussions.

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Course code: EEH038F

The course accounts for the historical emergence and establishment of the overarching international frameworks for a just and prosperous society such as the UN system of human rights and the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. These encompassing visions have to account for several challenging aspects of contemporary global development, such as poverty issues, inequalities, environmental concerns, transformations of international trade brought by the supply chain revolution, and governance complexities presented by for example the rise of China and its state-capitalist authoritarian model of development. In this regard, attention will be given to discussing the role of the private sector and the emergence of multistakeholder partnerships and corporate social responsibilities and the shift from voluntarism to novel public regulations of supply chains, especially in the EU. The course will examine how the economy of today is shaped by the imperatives linked to climate change and post-covid reconstruction and discuss the extent to how these transformations relate to new spaces and challenges for inclusive and rights-based development. The conduct of both private and public actors, as well as their interdependencies in what some call the ‘state-business nexus’, will be analysed.

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Course code: EEH039F

The course gives an introduction to basic concepts within time series analysis. The univariate analysis of time series in this course is based upon ARMA/ARIMA and ARCH-/GARCH models. Multivariate time series analysis is based on VAR models. Nonstationary time series are analysed using unit root tests, cointegration methods and VEC models. Theoretical studies are interwoven with practical applications in financial economics and macroeconomics.

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Course code: EEH040F

Quantitative courses

The course is divided up into two parts. The first part consists of basic theory and methods relating to multivariate linear regression, limited dependent variable regression and time series analysis. It also considers how to apply these methods through examples of how such methods are used in economic history. This part also introduces computer software (e.g. Stata) for quantitative analysis. In the second part of the course, students analyse a quantitative problem using actual data from economic history, and report results in individual papers.

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Course code: EEH006F

The course consists of two parts. The first part consists of more advanced theory and methods relating to causal approaches surpassing the multivariate linear regression, limited dependent variable regression and time series analysis covered by Econometrics I. It also considers how to apply these methods through examples of how such methods are used in economic history. It discusses issues like selection bias, the bad control problem, and unobserved heterogeneity and the pitfalls associated with them as well as the possibilities to deal with these issues. This part advances the knowledge of empirical analysis making use of computer software (e.g. Stata). In the second part of the course, students independently analyse a more advanced quantitative problem using actual data from economic history, and report results in individual papers, showing awareness of the pros and cons of various causal approaches in econometrics.

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Course code: EEH007F

The course will cover basic theory and methods relating to multivariate linear regression and time series analysis. It considers how to apply these methods through examples of such methods used in economic history research. The course also introduces computer software for quantitative analysis. The course introduces students to methods for how to analyze a quantitative problem using econometric analysis, and how to report and discuss the results in a research paper.

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Course code: EEH037F

Advanced Topics, tutorial courses

The course gives an introduction to historical demographic sources and methods as well as the fundamental demographic developments in a historical perspective. An important part of the course also deals with historical demographic data and methods with the aim to conduct empirical analysis in historical demography. This part involves both data management and statistical analysis and aims to give students the tools to conduct an independent analysis of core historical-demographic issues. The course focuses on the preindustrial population system, the demographic transition in the Western countries and economic-demographic interactions at the micro level. An important aspect of this development concerns mortality patterns in the past, related both to the overall mortality development and to differentials in mortality across groups and across space. Another core theme deals with fertility in preindustrial society and why fertility declined all over the Western world from the late 19th century. Depending on the interest of individual students, different additional topics will be covered, for example relating to marriage patterns, household dynamics, and socioeconomic stratification and mobility.

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Course code: EEH019F

From forced slave migration and indentured servitude to today’s refugee and labour migration, nations over the world has throughout time experienced challenges and rewards linked to this form of demographic change. This course focuses on contemporary (post World War II) migration flows to developed countries, analysing the substantial heterogeneities between individuals depending on their regions of origin in terms of their socioeconomic and demographic integration to their new host country. This course takes a multifaceted approach to the topic of the course, analysing not only factors underlying migratory flows, but also the causes and consequences of the outcomes experienced by the migrants. When discussing why individuals migrate, migration theory will be comprehensively addressed, with a distinct focus on selection and how such mechanisms may explain observed outcomes. Due to the breadth of the topic, the content of the course will vary from year to year in order to allow for addressing the selected subtopic at a level appropriate for a course at this level of progression. Among subtopics to be examined is immigrant discrimination, the interrelationship between economic and demographic integration and second-generation immigrant integration.

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Course code: EEH021F

A key question in the research on financial and monetary systems is whether they leadto economic growth and modernization - or rather - in which cases financial systemsare able to do so and in which cases they do not. The course deals with the criteriathat are assumed to lead to well-functioning monetary and financial systems both intheory and in practice, both present and historical.From the early 1990s (after the EMS crisis) until the 2007–2008 crisis, ideas about theimportance of financial systems for economic growth circulated in many parts of theworld. Leading academics and institutions, such as the World Bank, the OECD andothers, saw the financial system as a key to economic growth and development.However, this positive attitude towards the role of the financial system quickly endedwith the outbreak of the 2007/08 crisis. Many countries still suffer from the recessionwith increasing debt, low or non-existent growth and poor confidence in the future.The aim of this course is to understand these contradictory views on financial andmonetary systems as necessary for economic growth and development, but at thesame time how financial and monetary systems can, under certain conditions, lead toinstability and crises.

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Course code: EEH022F

Most scholars would agree that ‘good government’ is a prerequisite for economic development: societies that do not manage to protect property rights will not be able to achieve an efficient allocation of production factors. They will also not be able to attract foreign investors. Which property rights systems are beneficial to growth, how they emerged, and they can be introduced in developing societies, are key issues in economic history.

The course discusses the development of the concept of property in the long run, as well as the history of property rights systems, and their implications for development. It also asks how such a long-run approach can help us understand how to manage and improve property rights systems in today’s societies. The course introduces the New Institutional Economics approach to economic development, and will pay attention to various legal underpinnings of property, including contract law and public registration of titles to property, as well as rule of law and conflict mediation institutions, and government’s role in property rights enforcement, to get an impression of what makes for a beneficial property rights system.

Adjusting property rights systems can be difficult because of the vested interests of property owners. Attention will therefore also go to the question of how past societies managed to make changes to their property rights systems, under which circumstances they managed to succeed, and how this impacted upon development.

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Course code: EEH023F

The significant role of agriculture in the development process for both long-term economic growth and poverty reduction is a classic theme in both Economic History and Development Economics. The relative decline of agriculture and simultaneous rise of the industrial and service sectors rests on the productivity of, and resource transfer from, the former. This tutorial provides the tools to go into depth on the dynamics and variation of these processes. In this course, we will review the theoretical debates on the role of agriculture both in terms of its mechanisms of change and its interaction with other sectors. Empirically, the course will have a broad geographical scope including cases from Asia, Latin America and Africa. This will allow a study and further understanding not only of the successful and completed cases of transformation but also those that are still in the midst of the process.

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Course code: EEH024F

Investigating and theoretically explain why inequality is so much higher in some countries than in others and what drives changes over the long run are questions that have been central in economic history and economics. Despite the continued scholarly attention, which has included theoretical development as well as the adding of increasing empirical evidence, clear answers are still lacking. Until recently, most studies were concerned with inequality trends in the developed world, albeit there is now a slowly growing literature on the developing South including Asia, Latin America and Africa.

The aim of the tutorial is threefold:

1) To provide an in-depth discussion of theoretical perspectives of the long run causal relationships between economic growth and inequality, emanating from structural, political-economy and macro-sociological traditions

2) To enable students to analytically and methodologically identify the strengths and weaknesses of the theories

3) To teach students how to apply theory to empirical cases

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Course code: EEH025F

The aim of the tutorial is to examine the long-run development patterns of Africa and Latin America in the light of recent experiences of high economic growth, poverty reduction, democratization and integration in the global economy. In the course students will, from a variety of theoretical perspectives and with the help of a number of indicators, discuss the extent to which the regions have fundamentally shifted development paths. Emphasis will be put on diversity of pathways within the regions and on the analytical usefulness of comparing conditions for economic development between Latin America and Africa.

The tutorial consists of two parts. The first part emphasizes the debates on long-run economic development in Africa and Latin America. It takes it point of departure in some of the seminal works that have had a significant impact on both the scholarly community as well as among policy makers and advisors. The works are critically assessed in relation to the most recent empirical findings concerning the trajectories and forces of long-term economic development in Africa and Latin America. In the second part, we use our understanding of the long-term patterns of change to discuss the more recent economic political, technological and institutional changes in Africa and Latin America. We discuss what lessons that can be derived from history. A comparative approach is applied as we ask what the economic history of Latin America can tell us about Africa and vice versa.

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Course code: EEH026F

This is a seminar-based course offered only to a limited number of second year students enrolled in the Master program in Innovation and Global Sustainable Development. The course provides a basic understanding of how different innovation strategies are formed for firms to compete globally. It will concentrate primarily on outlining the changing patterns of global organisation of innovation, global resourcing for innovation, and global creation and dissemination of knowledge.  It will introduce theories and tools for students to acquire understanding of globalisation of innovation and to develop firm’s global innovation strategy. The course is organized around seven topical sessions. For each topical session, the students will have compulsory readings that will be discussed in class. Additionally, the students will be required to prepare a practical case. 

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Course code: EEH027F

To carry out a research project, raw datasets need to be selected and manipulated to create variables that are appropriate to the research question, and the data needs to be formatted in the way that is required for the statistical analysis to be used. The aim of this course is to provide students with advanced knowledge on the use and management of micro-level demographic data. The course will be primarily hands-on and different types of datasets will be employed. The appropriate selection of datasets and variables to answer a research question will be discussed, as well as issues of data quality, data cleaning and the handling of missing data. During each meeting, the necessary steps to create different types of variables will be shown. The course is designed as a tutorial where the student attends meetings and conducts independent work, which will be discussed with the instructor and other students in the group.

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Course code: EEH028F

The role of aid in the development process for long-termeconomic growth, poverty reduction and improving quality of life is a classic theme inboth Economic History and Development Economics.The aim of this course is to analyze the theoretical and ideological underpinnings,practical implementation and long-term effects of aid directed towards thedeveloping countries from 1950s onwards.It takes as a point of departure the contemporary, and animated, debate on the fruitfulness of aid to assess success or failure of different types of both bilateral andmultilateral aid initiatives in a historical perspective. It also considers the implications of the rapidly changing aid landscape in terms of new aid actors and alternatives toaid during the changes taking place in the global economy. The real-world practiceand allocation in terms of aid flows and donor preferences will be related to thedevelopment needs of recipient countries. Empirically, the course will have a broad geographical scope including experiencesfrom Asia, Latin America and Africa. This will allow for a deeper understanding of notonly cases where development aid has played a prominently conducive role fordevelopment but also cases where it has impeded economic and social progress.

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Course code: EEH032F

Economic historians make use of primary sources to study economic development inthe past. To this end we reassess original sources or collect data that were collected inthe past, by compilers who often had their own, specific purposes. To be able to useprimary sources therefore requires the application of thorough source critique.This course introduces the student to primary sources. Where does one find primary sources? How should one interpret them and evaluate their validity and reliability? How can one deal with scarcity, and excess, of data, respectively? And how should one process data retrieved from primary sources? The course prepares the student for using primary sources in the context of a researchproject, and to thus make a novel contribution to the field of economic history.

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Course code: EEH033F

This course discusses the history of economic and social inequality, focusing on the Western world since the Middle Ages. The aim is to bring students up to speed withthe research frontier in research on historical inequality. While some attention is paid to classic studies, the emphasis is on newer research.The core issues are these:

First, what is defined as inequality and what is measured? Concepts of income and wealth are introduced and discussed, and we discuss alternative empirical approaches to the overall theme of “inequality”. The disciplinary divides and boundaries between economics, economic history, history, sociology andother relevant disciplines are discussed. We discuss the connections between economic, social, and political inequality in history. We also go through the main types of sources used in historical studies of inequality: tax data, probate inventories and wills, and social tables.

Second, we go through recent empirical research on economic inequality through history. We discuss strengths and limitations of the literature and what we know a lotabout and what is omitted from the literature. We discuss where the research field isgoing and what kind of research is needed going forward. The course gives students a deeper understanding of economic inequality, its history and its development.

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Course code: EEH034F

The significant but elusive role of the state in the development process for long-termeconomic growth, poverty reduction and improving quality of life is a classic theme inboth Economic History and Development Economics. The balance between the Stateand the Market or the State and Society has been, and still is, subject to vivid andsometimes animated debates. For instance, the state as a guarantor of functioninginstitutional arrangements, provider of public goods and orchestrator of developmentinitiatives are central items of these debates. So are the different qualities andcompetences that are required to handle rapid change of exogenous factors such asliberalization, globalization and technological changes.

This tutorial provides the tools to go into depth on the dynamics and variation ofthese processes in the developing world. In this course we will review the theoreticaldebates on the role of the state both in terms of its mechanisms of change and itsinteraction with other sectors. Empirically, the course will have a broad geographicalscope including experiences from Asia, Latin America and Africa. This will allow for adeeper understanding of not only cases where the state has played a prominentlyconducive role for development but also cases where the state has impeded economicand social progress.

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Course code: EEH035F

In this course, the aim is to study the development of economic thinking since the 18th century and the methodology of economics. The course is made up of two parts. The first part consists of an overview of the development of the economics discipline during the last 250 years, along with its relationship to economic history. The course initially deals with the so-called classical political economy represented by thinkers like Smith, Ricardo, Malthus and Say. Furthermore, developments of Marx, as well as historical and institutional schools, which evolved alongside the marginalist revolution with Jevons, Menger, Walras, during the last part of the 19th century. The 20th century begins with Marshall and foundation of neoclassical economics and is followed by the breakthrough of modern macroeconomics with the Keynesian analysis and its successors such as Hicks and Arrow/Debreu and, furthermore, the monetarist and neoclassical challenge in the second half of the century. Finally, the multi-faceted development alongside the neoclassical mainstream towards and into the 21st century is examined. Some attention is devoted to the quantification and mathematising of economics and economic history during the 20th and 21st centuries, as well as the development of economic history as an independent discipline in Sweden. The second part deals with the methodology of economics in a scientific and social science context. How has the academic discipline economics developed in relation to trends in social science such as positivism and postmodernism? Moreover, theories and schools in economics are also analyzed from epistemological and sociology of science perspectives based on the theories and work of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos.

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Course code: EHEH006

Based on demand

This course presents and discusses some of the fundamental debates in African economic history. Emphasis is placed on research in recent years.   The course consists of four themes: (i) a broader overview of the research field, (ii) long-term economic and agrarian change, (iii) state formation and capacity, (iv) inequality, welfare and poverty.   Within each theme we discuss and compare central perspectives and debates that students are expected to be able to contrast and critically examine. The first part of the course consists of literature seminars where selected mandatory reading is discussed. During the second half of the course, each student is free to identify an individual in-depth study area that fits into the overall framework of the course.

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Course code: EHEH005

The course gives an introduction to basic concepts within time series analysis. The univariate analysis of time series in this course is based upon ARMA/ARIMA models. Multivariate time series analysis is based on VAR models. Non-stationary time series are analysed using unit root tests, co-integration methods and VEC models. Students have the choice of specialising in the analysis of volatility models or non-stationary panel data models. Theoretical studies are interwoven with practical applications in financial economics and macroeconomics.

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Course code: EEH017F

The aim of this tutorial is to provide students with advanced knowledge of central aspects of family demography, including fertility, family formation, divorce, and cohabitation. The course will examine the family as a dynamic institution, incorporating a historical and comparative perspective, focusing on late 20th century developments in economically-developed countries. Students will gain competence in both theoretical and empirical analyses, which include critical assessments and understanding of current analytical approaches in family research. The interconnectedness of fertility, paid work, and policy will be contrasted across Nordic countries, as well as those adhering to other welfare regimes. The consequences and implications of changes in the family for individuals and society at large will be explored, with an emphasis on the changing roles of women.

The course is designed as a tutorial where the student independently reads the designated literature and discusses it with the instructor, and possibly with other students in the group. In addition, the student works with written assignments given by the instructor. The course is divided into three parts. The first part places an emphasis on basic theories of the family and on related developments including but not limited to marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. Part two of the course will focus on three inter-related topics: fertility; the effects of parenthood on work, time use and gender equality; and fertility, work and policy in a comparative perspective. The final part of the course will be devoted to a final paper, which students will present in a final seminar presentation.

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Course code: EEH020F

Provided within the Agenda 2030 PhD school, by Economic History and Business Administration together.

The course is taught under the Agenda 2030 Graduate School. It is the result of a collaboration between the School of Economics and Management, the School of Engineering and LUCSUS.

The course revolves around the system transformations needed to achieve SDG12 on sustainable consumption and production in a globalized world and it covers different levels of analysis from individuals and organizations; industries, whole economies and global systems. Illustrations will come from a variety of areas like food production and consumption, energy or mobility, from both the Global North and the Global South.

Teaching: The course is structured around the following five modules:

  • Conceptual foundations - Introduction to the course
  • Micro perspective – Responsible consumers and producers
  • Meso perspective – Responsible industries, cities and communities
  • Macro perspective – Responsible consumption and production in a globalized world
  • Workshop with paper presentations

Course syllabus

Course code: EEH029F

PhD dissertation (165 credit points)

The dissertation documents the ability to formulate and analyze a scientifically relevant research issue. It can be presented in a monograph or as a collection of essays. The department guidelines describe in detail the structure of each type of dissertation. The dissertation is defended at a public seminar with an external evaluator acting as discussant and evaluated by a grading committee.

Download guidelines for doctoral dissertations at the Department of Economic History

Contact

Ellen Hillbom
Professor, professor, deputy head of department, director of third cycle studies

ellen.hillbom@ekh.lu.se
Phone: +46 46 222 74 86
Room: Alfa1:2041

Ellen Hillbom
Last published: 2021-12-01